The vehicle sensor is the input device of the automobile computer system. It converts various operating conditions of the vehicle, such as the speed of the vehicle, the temperature of various media, and the operating conditions of the engine, into an electric signal for transmission to the computer so that the engine is at its best. Working status. Many vehicle sensors, when judging the sensor's failure, should not only consider the sensor itself, but should consider the entire circuit that has failed. Therefore, when looking for a fault, in addition to checking the sensor, check the wiring harness, connectors, and related circuitry between the sensor and the electronic control unit.
One of the characteristics of the development of modern automotive technology is that more and more components are electronically controlled. According to the role of the sensor, it can be classified as a temperature sensor, a pressure sensor, a flow sensor, a position sensor, a gas concentration sensor, a speed sensor, a light sensor, a dry humidity sensor, a distance sensor, and the like. They perform their duties, once If the sensors fail, the corresponding device will work abnormally or not work. Therefore, the role of the sensor in the car is very important. As the information source of the automotive electronic control system, automotive sensors are the key components of the automotive electronic control system, and they are also one of the core contents of the automotive electronics technology research. Automotive sensors perform real-time, accurate measurement and control of various information such as temperature, pressure, position, rotational speed, acceleration, and vibration. The key to measuring the level of modern limousine control systems is the number and level of sensors. At present, about a hundred sensors are installed on a domestic ordinary family car, and there are as many as 200 sensors on a luxury sedan.
In recent years, micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology developed from semiconductor integrated circuit technology has become more and more mature. This technology can be used to make various sensitive and detectable mechanical quantities, magnetic quantities, thermal quantities, chemical quantities, and biomass. Miniature sensors, which are small in size and energy consumption, can realize many new functions, are easy to produce in large quantities and with high precision, and are low in cost per unit. They are easy to form large-scale and multi-function arrays and are very suitable for applications in automobiles. The large-scale application of miniature sensors will not be limited to engine combustion control and airbags. In the next 5 to 7 years, including engine operation management, exhaust gas and air quality control, ABS, vehicle power control, adaptive navigation, vehicle driving safety system The application within will provide a broad market for MEMS technology.
Since the 1980s, the domestic automotive instrument industry has introduced advanced foreign technology and its associated sensor production technology, which has basically met the supporting needs of domestic small-batch, low-level models. Due to the late start, it has not yet formed serialization and matching, and has not yet formed an independent industry. It is still attached to the automobile instrumentation companies.
The use of new electronic products in many cars, light vehicles, and some trucks requires high-volume, high-level automotive sensors. However, the highest level of automotive sensor products in China is more than 10 years behind similar foreign products, and imports 500,000 each year. Set of high performance automotive sensors above. For example pressure sensor.
The pressure sensor is mainly used to detect cylinder negative pressure, atmospheric pressure, turbine engine boost ratio, in-cylinder pressure, and oil pressure. Suction negative pressure sensors are mainly used for suction pressure, negative pressure, and oil pressure detection. Automotive pressure sensors used more capacitive, piezoresistive, differential transformer type (LVDT), surface elastic wave (SAW).
Capacitive pressure sensor is mainly used to detect negative pressure, hydraulic pressure and pressure. The measurement range is 20~100kPa. It has the characteristics of high input energy, good dynamic response and good environmental adaptability. Piezoresistive pressure sensor is greatly influenced by temperature and needs Separate temperature compensation circuit, but adapted to mass production; LVDT pressure sensor has a large output, easy digital output, but poor anti-interference; SAW pressure sensor has a small size, light weight, low power consumption, high reliability, With high sensitivity, high resolution, and digital output, it is suitable for pressure detection of automotive suction valves and can work stably at high temperatures. It is an ideal sensor.
In order to enhance the competitiveness of products, many sensor manufacturers adopt joint ventures with foreign companies in the same way as foreign companies, digest and absorb foreign advanced sensor technologies, upgrade their products, and gradually develop and expand, and some have become a few â€œEFIâ€ systems. Downstream suppliers. However, the overwhelming majority of enterprises are only supporting the production of sensors for other vehicles, and they are in a situation of low profit, single product, low product quality and technical level.
With the rapid growth of domestic automobile production, the demand for sensors and their associated transmissions and meters will increase greatly in the domestic automobile industry in the next few years. It is imperative to realize the localization of automotive sensors. In order to adapt to this situation, it is necessary to focus on the development of new types of sensors such as pressure, temperature, flow, and displacement. It is an urgent task for the automotive industry to quickly solve the sensors required for the EFI system, the air-conditioning sewerage system, and the autopilot system. Automotive sensors are second-class accessory products for automakers. They must be integrated into the vehicle factory in the form of systems. The strength of the first-tier system supporter is related to the OEM's brand, so a system platform must be established to drive the development of the sensor system. The development trend of the future automotive sensor technology is miniaturization, multi-functionalization, integration and intelligence.
The sensor industry will further develop in the direction of scale, specialization, and automation. The planar process technology for large-scale industrial production will be the main driving force for the significant reduction of sensor prices. The automation of the sensor manufacturing post processâ€”one package process and test calibration (the cost of both of which accounts for more than 50% of the total cost of the product) will be a breakthrough in key production processes.
The corporate structure of the sensor industry will continue to exhibit the pattern of â€œbig, medium, and small,â€ and â€œgrouping and specialized production coexistence.â€ Large corporate groups will increasingly show its monopoly, while specialized production. Small and medium-sized enterprises still have room and opportunities for their survival and development because they can adapt to the needs of small-volume products in the market.
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